Wildlife is an important renewable natural resource represented by populations of animals that live in complete freedom in the state of Nueva Esparta, where they reproduce and thrive without the help of man. Have been reported 34 (thirty-four) species of mammals among which are carnivorous species like the ocelot (Felis pardalis) and the skunk (Conepatus semistriatus); Among the herbivorous species is caramerudo deer (Odocoileus virginianus margaritae) and the Canarete or wild mouse. Among the birds are mentioned more than eleven (11) orders and one hundred and fifty eight (158) species that make this beautiful island a paradise for bird photography (birdwatching).
It should be noted that marine animals is indeed very wide and this makes fishing one of the most common ways of life among the inhabitants of the island. The diving is undoubtedly a highly rewarding sport on the island of Margarita, due to the enormous marine diversity in their living environments. Its waters are teeming with life and it is not surprising that in a boat trip at sunrise or sunset come to greet him kindly with playful dolphins and spectacular jumps. No wonder that you can acquire all types of marine life at the hands of the fishermen in the markets that exist in every town.
The semiarid climate of the state of Nueva Esparta is one of the main reasons for the evolution of two major types of vegetation. On the one hand and fewer areas are abundant tropical vegetation on the slopes of the main hills of the island, and another semi-desert xerophytic vegetation prevailing sideways Macanao Peninsula where the winds and the low level rainfall makes this place semi-desert area surrounded by the typical xerophytic vegetation of these areas. To the northeast sector of the island are abundant tropical vegetation zones and even some of these are cultivated. Coconut-fringed beaches and palm trees and surrounded by abundant vegetation roads are examples of this type of area. Among the types of vegetation found on the island are the mangroves or mangrove stands in areas of flow and ebb of the tide with their roots under water much of the time such as in coastal lagoons, dense forest located by about 400 to 600 meters high, certainly on the slopes of hills and small mountains of the island, scrub vegetation generated by groups or training and spinal xerophytic shrub vegetation with a predominance of spinal and cacti and cactus.